Unit 7 Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific Islands

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Unit 7 Vocabulary List Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Flashcards Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Matching Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Word Search Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Concentration Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Hangman with Hints Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Hangman without Hints Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Jumbled Words Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Presentation Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Cornell Notes Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 CLOZE Physical Geography & Climate Australia, New Zealand, & the Pacific Islands

Unit 7 CLOZE History & Culture Australia, New Zealand, & the Pacific Islands

Unit 7 CLOZE Australia, New Zealand, & the Pacific Islands Today

Unit 7 Rags to Riches Physical Geography & Climate Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Rags to Riches History & Culture Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Rags to Riches Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands Today

Unit 7 Fling the Teacher Physical Geography & Climate Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Fling the Teacher History & Culture Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Fling the Teacher Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands Today

Unit 7 Walk the Plank Physical Geography & Climate Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Walk the Plank History & Culture Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Walk the Plank Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands Today

Unit 7 En Garde Physical Geography & Climate Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 En Garde History & Culture Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 En Garde Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands Today

Unit 7 Penalty Shootout Physical Geography & Climate Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Penalty Shootout History & Culture Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Penalty Shootout Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands Today

Unit 7 Hoopshoot Physical Geography & Climate Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Hoopshoot History & Culture Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Hoopshoot Australia, New Zealand & Pacific Islands Today

Unit 7 Battleship Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands

Unit 7 Challenge Board Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Islands (Play the HTML version that loads!!! Don’t use the Flash version!!!)

Unit 7 Review Australia, New Zealand, & the Pacific Islands

Unit 7 KAHOOT! Australia, New Zealand, & the Pacific Islands

Chapter 28: Physical Geography of Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica

Chapter Overview

Australia is a country and a continent. The Great Barrier Reef, a chain of colorful coral formations, lies off Australia’s northeastern coast. This dry continent is covered by plains, plateaus, and a few low mountain ranges. Because the area has been separated from other continents for millions of years, unique plants and animals have developed there and in the neighboring island of New Zealand. New Zealand lies in the Pacific Ocean, about 1,200 miles southeast of Australia. It includes two main islands and many smaller islands. Because it lies where two tectonic plates meet, it has active volcanoes and geysers. New Zealand is part of Oceania, a culture region that includes about thousands of islands in the Pacific Ocean. The three types of islands are high, low, and continental. The continent of Antarctica sits at the southern end of the Earth. A thick ice cap covers a landscape of mountains, valleys, and plateaus. Although it is the coldest place on Earth, it is considered to have a desert climate due to the lack of precipitation. Even with its harsh environment, Antarctica can still support life. Penguins, fish, whales, and many kinds of birds live in or near the rich seas surrounding Antarctica, and many eat a tiny, shrimplike creature called krill. Scientists believe that Antarctica contains a wealth of minerals. A treaty among several countries allows scientific research in Antarctica—such as study of the ozone layer—but not the removal of its minerals.

Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica have many resources, but the islands of Oceania have relatively few. Australia has rich mineral resources, such as bauxite, copper, nickel, and gold, and New Zealand has deposits of gold, coal, and natural gas. Some larger islands in Oceania have deposits of oil, gold, nickel, and copper, but the smaller islands have few resources. Antarctica is rich in mineral resources such as coal and iron ore. Many nations of the world, however, have agreed not to mine Antarctica in order to protect its environment.

The region includes a variety of climates. Australia is generally a dry continent: about one-third is desert and another third is steppe. Its coastal areas received plentiful rainfall, Few people inhabit the desert regions; most of Australia’s people live near the southeastern coast, which has a marine west coast climate. New Zealand has a mild climate throughout the year, and the rest of Oceania is mostly tropical and very warm. In contrast, Antarctica is a cold desert climate where no humans live permanently. Despite its temperatures, penguins and marine mammals survive in Antarctica.

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Chapter 29: History and Cultures of Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica

Chapter Overview

Asian and Pacific peoples settled Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania thousands of years ago during an Ice Age. When ice melted and oceans rose, these people were cut off from the rest of the world. The people now called Aborigines in Australia were hunters and gatherers. Their religion emphasized relationship with nature. People settled in New Guinea and other islands in the Pacific about the same time, and the Maori left Polynesia to settle in New Zealand. They set up villages, grew crops, and fished. Captain James Cook claimed Australia for Great Britain in the 1700s, but England sent prisoners from overcrowded prisons to the island. Later, more British farmers settled and raised sheep for wool. As Europeans took more and more land from Aborigines, however, the Aborigines were forced to defend their land. By the late 1800s, war and disease had greatly decreased the population of Aborigines. Great Britain divided Australia into five separate colonies that made their own laws. Every man was allowed to vote, paving the way for democracy for the colonists. Similarly, British settlers arrived in New Zealand in the early 1800s, and the diseases they brought with them killed half the Maori population. The remaining Maori agreed to a treaty to keep their land but soon British settlers took it over, too, to raise sheep and cattle. As global trade grew, Europeans and Americans also colonized islands in Oceania.

Australia, New Zealand, and many islands in Oceania gained independence in the 1900s. Australia and New Zealand are today parliamentary democracies. In 1893, New Zealand was the first country to grant women the right to vote; Australia followed in 1902. In the twentieth century, two world wars led to independence for many of the islands in Oceania. Japan had to turn them over to the United States as trust territories after World War II, but since the 1960s most have become independent. A few have had ethnic conflict since gaining their independence.

Compared to other regions of the world, Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica are sparsely populated. But people from different parts of the world have helped shape the cultures of Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania. Most people in those countries live in coastal urban areas in Western-style apartments or small houses. People of European descent make up the primary ethnic groups in Australia and New Zealand. Australia has recently seen immigration increases from Asia, and the Aborigine population is also growing, so Australia is becoming more diverse. New Zealand is not as diverse. In contrast, most of the people in Oceania live in small rural villages. Three main ethnic groups—Melanesians, Polynesians, and Micronesians—make up most of the population. Together, the peoples of Oceania speak more than 1,200 languages. Daily life has been influenced by European and Pacific traditions in Australia and Oceania. People of European backgrounds tend to live in nuclear families, while the Aborigines, Maori, and Pacific Islanders stress extended families. Christianity is the most widely practiced religion, but in some areas traditional religions are still practiced. The arts in Australia draw from the Aborigine history as well as modern viewpoints. Much of New Zealand’s art is based on Maori culture. People in this region enjoy outdoor sports, especially water sports.

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Chapter 30: Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica Today

Chapter Overview

Extensive farming and ranching, along with other agricultural and economic practices, have affected Australia and New Zealand. Australia has a strong economy. The country has needed skilled workers and has encouraged tourism. At the same time, the country works to improve the condition of the Aborigines, who have suffered discrimination since European settlement. Aborigines have won court cases that have given them control over land, which worries other landowners. Australia exports minerals and energy resources and is a major exporter of wool, lamb, beef, and cattle hides. Growth has led to environmental problems. New Zealand has a growing economy that is based on trade, especially the export of wool and meat. It is also expanding into wood and paper products.

Many of Oceania’s islands have limited resources and depend on tourism or aid from other countries. The area is divided into three groups of islands: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. New Guinea is the largest and most populous island in Melanesia, and its people practice subsistence farming or work on large plantations. The Fiji Islands in Melanesia suffer from ethnic conflict between Melanesians and South Asians. Other islands such as the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia have mostly people from the Melanesian ethnic group. People in Micronesia and Polynesia practice subsistence farming. Micronesian islands have strong ties to the United States and some have U.S. military bases. Many Polynesian islands are so poor that they depend on foreign aid. A few such as Samoa and Tonga have encouraged tourism to boost the economy. Oceania’s islands had been sites of nuclear testing in the past, which continues to have effects today.

Scientists fear that human activity may be harming plant and animal life in Antarctica even though the continent does not have a permanent human population. Higher global temperatures may lead to the loss of ice in and near Antarctica. In addition, a hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica concerns scientists. Many countries today have scientific research stations in Antarctica, but no country claims Antarctica.