Unit 5 South, Southwest, and Central Asia

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Unit 5 South, Southwest, & Central Asia

Unit 5 South, Southwest, Central Asia Vocabulary

Unit 5 South, Southwest, Central Asia Flashcards

Unit 5 South, Southwest, Central Asia Vocabulary List

Unit 5 South, Southwest, Central Asia Matching

Unit 5 South, Southwest, Central Asia Word Search

Unit 5 South, Southwest, Central Asia Concentration

Unit 5 South, Southwest, Central Asia Hangman with Hints

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Unit 5 South, Southwest, Central Asia Jumbled Words

Unit 5 CLOZE Popups South, Southwest, Central Asia Physical Features, Climate, & Resources

Unit 5 CLOZE Popups South, Southwest, Central Asia History & Cultures

Unit 5 CLOZE Popups South, Southwest, Central Asia Today

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Unit 5 South, Southwest, Central Asia Cornell Notes

Unit 5 Rags to Riches South, Southwest, Central Asia Physical Features, Climate, & Resources

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Unit 5 Fling the Teacher South, Southwest, Central Asia Physical Features, Climate, & Resources

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Unit 5 Walk the Plank South, Southwest, Central Asia Physical Features, Climate, & Resources

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Unit 5 En Garde South, Southwest, Central Asia Physical Features, Climate, & Resources

Unit 5 En Garde South, Southwest, Central Asia History & Cultures

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Unit 5 Penalty Shootout South, Southwest, Central Asia Physical Features, Climate, & Resources

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Unit 5 Hoopshoot South, Southwest, Central Asia Physical Features, Climate, & Resources

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Unit 5 Southwest Asia Oil Reserves & Production Quiz

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Unit 5 Kahoot!

Chapter 16: Physical Geography of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia

Chapter Overview

For centuries, the people of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia have adapted to survive in this dry region. The region extends from the Atlantic coast of northwestern Africa to the towering mountain ranges of the middle of Asia. All three areas of the region have similar landscapes. Several mountain ranges along with low-lying plateaus stretch across the area. Coastal plains support agricultural, but inland areas are quite dry.

The region is surrounded by water, and waterways connect the seas. The Strait of Gibraltar links the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean. A human-made waterway, the Suez Canal, connects the Mediterranean and the Red seas, and the Strait of Hormuz allows access to the Persian Gulf. Humans built civilizations along the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates rivers. Many areas of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia have harsh environments. As a result, people have settled in more temperate areas such as river valleys. Many areas have misused their water supplies and surrounding seas. One of the most important challenges facing the region is managing water resources. The lack of water in the region is a growing problem.

The region is the world’s leading producer of petroleum and natural gas. During the past century, the increasing global need for these resources has brought new wealth and changing lifestyles to the area. Coal and iron ore are also found in the region. But the scarcest resource is water. Much of the land of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia is desert. The world’s largest desert, the Sahara, covers much of North Africa. The Arabian Peninsula is nearly covered by deserts, and Central Asia has two large desert areas. Some areas, such as coastal areas of North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and Turkey, have Mediterranean climates and receive higher levels of rainfall.

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Chapter 17: History and Cultures of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia

Chapter Overview

The people of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia built civilizations in fertile river valleys in the region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia. Mesopotamia, located in an area called the Fertile Crescent in present-day Iraq, had large city-states as early as 3000 B.C. in an area known as Sumer. The Sumerians there developed calendars and cuneiform writing. Later, King Hammurabi would develop the world’s first code of law. In Egypt along the Nile River, small villages developed that would later be organized into a large empire under a series of pharaohs, or rulers. Egyptians also developed a form of writing called hieroglyphics. Both the Egyptian and the Mesopotamian civilizations had religion at the center of their society. These religions were polytheistic.

The region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia is the birthplace of three world religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Although they have important differences, all three religions are monotheistic. Since their beginnings thousands of years ago, these religions have spread throughout the world. They have also had a great impact on the history of the region, which is now primarily Muslim. Religious beliefs and traditions have influenced the language, arts, and daily lives of the people. Today, the arts are also influenced by secular subjects. Family life is also important throughout the region; in many areas men have the dominant role in the family and women are expected to obey their husbands, stay home, and raise children. In some countries, women’s roles are changing.

Standards of living vary across the area depending on whether a country has an economy based on oil or on manufacturing. These countries, like Saudi Arabia and Qatar, have prospered. Other countries such as Egypt and Algeria do not have these resources and have growing populations. Their citizens do not have high standards of living.

In recent times, political unrest and religious differences have troubled parts of this area, and these conflicts have an impact on the rest of the world. In response, many people of the region have turned to political movements based on Islam. The region has also witnessed the growth of terrorism, which has led to the U.S. war against Iraq.

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Chapter 18: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia Today

Chapter Overview

Many countries in North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia are rich in oil and natural gas resources. They supply much of the energy for countries around the world. Political unrest and wars, however, have troubled the region. Different standards of living in the region result from countries’ access to oil and gas reserves and from the conflict within an area.

While some North African countries enjoy high incomes from oil reserves, others have developing economies. Egypt has a developing economy that is also a republic. Libya has great wealth because of oil, although it was ruled for decades by a dictator. Tunisia, North Africa’s smallest country, has a growing tourism industry because of its coastal location and mild climate. It has one of the lowest rates of poverty in Africa because leaders have provided health care and education. Algeria is North Africa’s largest country; although it has oil and gas, there are not enough jobs for the growing population. Morocco, in Africa’s northwest corner, is a constitutional monarchy and also has a growing tourism industry.

In Southwest Asia, religious and ethnic conflicts affect the rest of the world because of the area’s oil and gas resources. Southwest Asian countries along the eastern Mediterranean Sea have mild climates and fertile land. Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestinian Territories, and Israel have areas of fertile coastal plains that have supported agriculture. Most people live in these areas. Some of these countries also endure ongoing conflicts that have resulted in violence and war. In the Arabian Peninsula, oil exports are important to the economy. Saudi Arabia, Oman and Yemen, and the countries of the Persian Gulf have important oil resources. In Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan, conflict and war have forced governments to change. As a result of wars with the United States, Iraq and Afghanistan are struggling to build stable democracies; Iran’s Muslim leadership, however, refuses Western influences.

Valuable natural resources are helping the people of Central Asia overcome the limitations of the area’s harsh environment. Minerals and agriculture are important resources, and some countries have oil and gas reserves. The countries are spread across land east of the Caspian Sea. The republics of Central Asia, which are all Islamic countries, are working to improve their economies after years of Communist rule. The Caucasus countries are new nations with diverse ethnic groups. Like the Central Asian Republics, they were once part of the Soviet Union. Their mild climates support commercial farming. Two countries, Georgia and Armenia, are predominantly Christian.

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Chapter 22: Physical Geography of South Asia

Chapter Overview

South Asia includes the countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Its varied landscape includes the highest mountains in the world as well as lowlands that are just above sea level. The Himalaya Mountains are the highest in the world. The mountains of South Asia grow a bit taller every year due to tectonic plate movements. These movements also cause earthquakes in the region. Luckily, mountains and deserts in South Asia are not heavily populated. Just south of the mountains are plains through which the region’s important rivers flow. These rivers are the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. Southern South Asia contains two plateaus, the Deccan and Karnataka. The Karnataka contain fertile soil and rain forest areas. Sri Lanka and the Maldives are the island nations of South Asia.

South Asia has few natural resources. Although there is some farmland in India and Pakistan, most farmers in South Asia barely earn a living. India has most of the region’s mineral resources, and Pakistan also has some minerals, especially limestone. The countries of South Asia have had to import oil for energy, but hydroelectric power is growing in importance.

The climate of South Asia is marked by contrasts—heavy rainfall during some parts of the year, extreme dryness in others. Monsoons bring needed rain to many areas but also bring the threat of flooding. At other times of the year, the region suffers water shortages. Its growing population demands freshwater, which is in short supply, and the increase in water pollution threatens the region’s important rivers. Air pollution is another challenge in parts of South Asia. The high concentration of people means more automobiles, and more exhaust fumes. Some areas of South Asia have tropical climates, which receive the heaviest rainfalls from the wet monsoons. Because the wet monsoons do not reach all of South Asia, some areas have dry climates; the Thar Desert is surrounded by a steppe that also remains dry.

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Chapter 23: History and Cultures of South Asia

Chapter Overview

Around 2500 B.C., people in South Asia developed what may have been the region’s first cities in the Indus Valley. Centuries of farming, industry, and trade brought wealth to the region; the people developed clay pottery and cotton cloth as well as a writing system. The decline of this civilization may have been because the Indus River changed course. The Aryans settled in northern South Asia about 1500 B.C., bringing a highly structured civilization based on social status. The Mauryan and Gupta empires arose in early South Asia from the 300s B.C. to A.D. 300s. Culture and science thrived under them. During the early 1500s, Muslim Moguls formed an empire in South Asia.

During the 1600s, traders from England arrived in India and soon became the dominant power in South Asia. By the mid-1800s, the British had colonized most of the region. Although British rule brought modernization to the region, it also caused hardship for the people. By the early 1900s, independence movements had begun. After World War II, countries gradually achieved their independence. With independence came conflict for some countries: India and Pakistan still fight for control of the Kashmir region, and a civil war troubles Sri Lanka.

South Asia is the birthplace of several world religions, including Hinduism and Buddhism, and these religions are still important today. Hinduism is the area’s most widely practiced religion: most people in India and Nepal are Hindu. Islam is the second-largest faith in the region. Buddhism remains strong in Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan. Art and architecture in South Asia reflect this religious influence. The lives of South Asians of all religious faiths are centered on the family. In many areas, marriages are arranged by families. Over the last century, the population of South Asia has grown dramatically due to better health care and high birthrates. As a result, South Asia contains three of the world’s most populous nations: India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. More than two-thirds of South Asians live in rural areas, although the region has several large and growing cities.

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Chapter 24: South Asia Today

Chapter Overview

South Asia is home to nearly 25 percent of the world’s people. Its largest country, India, is also the world’s most populous democracy. It is a vast country with a very diverse population, though the majority of its people are Hindu. India also has a stable government and a growing economy. Like the United States, India is a federal republic and has an elected president. However, executive power lies with the prime minister. India’s constitution is very detailed. Citizens have many rights and also certain duties, which include promoting harmony among ethnic groups. Its free market economy is growing rapidly, but because of its large population, there are not enough jobs. Agriculture is still a very important economic activity, and there are some factories and cottages industries. India’s service sector is growing rapidly. Many U.S. companies outsource work to India because of its well-educated workers and because wages there are low.

India’s neighbor, Pakistan, is also one of the world’s most populous nations. Almost all of its people are Muslim, and about half are farmers. Cotton cloth and clothing are major exports, and manufacturing and service industries are also important. Pakistan’s economy is growing. However, many people are still poor. Some even leave to find work in other countries. Like India, Pakistan is a federal republic, but democracy there is more limited. Surrounded on three sides by India, Bangladesh is a densely populated country on the Bay of Bengal. Most people are poor and earn a living by farming. Rice is an important crop, and clothing is becoming a thriving industry. Bangladesh’s leaders try to stay on good terms with India and other neighboring countries.

Conflict continues to be a challenge, however, in South Asia’s mountain kingdoms and island republics. Limited resources and political unrest have held back development in the mountain kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan. In Nepal, pro-democracy groups clash with the king. In Bhutan, ethnic tensions exist, but the country is moving toward democracy. The island republics of Sri Lanka and Maldives have growing economies. Maldives islands have a large tourism industry. In Sri Lanka, ethnic and political conflict has led to civil war.