Unit 4 Africa

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Unit 4 Africa

Unit 4 Vocabulary Africa

Unit 4 Africa Flashcards

Unit 4 Africa Vocabulary List

Unit 4 Africa Matching

Unit 4 Africa Word Search

Unit 4 Africa Concentration

Unit 4 Hangman with Hints Africa

Unit 4 Hangman without Hints Africa

Unit 4 Jumbled Words Africa

Unit 4 Africa Cloze Popups

Unit 4 Africa Cloze Fill in the Blank

Unit 4 Africa Presentation

Unit 4 Africa Cornell Notes

Unit 4 Rags to Riches Africa Physical Geography

Unit 4 Rags to Riches Africa Climate

Unit 4 Rags to Riches Africa History & Cultures

Unit 4 Rags to Riches Africa Today

Unit 4 Africa Battleship

Unit 4 Africa Physical Geography & Climate Fling the Teacher

Unit 4 Africa History, Culture, Africa Today Fling the Teacher

Unit 4 Africa Physical Geography & Climate Walk the Plank

Unit 4 Africa History, Culture, Africa Today Walk the Plank

Unit 4 Africa Physical Geography & Climate En Garde

Unit 4 Africa History, Culture, Africa Today En Garde

Unit 4 Africa Physical Geography & Climate Penalty Shootout

Unit 4 Africa History, Culture, Africa Today Penalty Shootout

Unit 4 Africa Physical Geography & Climate Hoop Shoot

Unit 4 Africa History, Culture, Africa Today Hoop Shoot

Unit 4 Africa Physical Geography & Climate Grade or No Grade

Unit 4 Africa History, Culture, Africa Today Grade or No Grade

Unit 4 Africa Challenge Board

Unit 4 Africa Review

Unit 4 Africa Map Jigsaw Puzzle

Unit 4 Africa Map Practice Countries

Unit 4 Africa Map Practice Physical Features

Unit 4 Africa Map Practice Tutorial

Unit 4 Africa Map Practice Drag the Countries

Unit 4 Africa Map Practice Click on the Countries

Chapter 19: Physical Geography of Africa South of the Sahara

Chapter Overview

The region of Africa south of the Sahara is diverse. It ranges from deserts to rain forests, from mountains to rolling grasslands, and from large plateaus to steep valleys. Over thousands of years, the movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates has shaped the landforms of this region. Almost the entire region lies on a series of plateaus, some of which are edged by escarpments. Lowland areas include ribbons of land that border the Atlantic and Indian oceans in the region. The Great Rift Valley in eastern Africa is a 4,0000-mile (6,437 km) natural wonder with jagged mountains, deep lakes, and a valley floor below sea level.

People in the region rely on its lakes and rivers for freshwater and transportation. Waterways also provide electricity. Lakes in the Great Rift Valley provide freshwater and fish to the people, and some serve as sources of important rivers. Four large river systems in the region—the Nile, the Congo, the Niger, and the Zambezi—begin in the plateaus and make their way to the sea. Waterfalls on the rivers were created as a result of tectonic plate activity.

The region of Africa south of the Sahara holds a variety of important resources. Petroleum deposits and natural gas reserves are found in some areas of the region, while other regions have coal. Minerals such as iron ore, chromium, uranium, and platinum. Gemstones like rubies, emeralds, sapphires, and diamonds are also mined in the region.

Climates in the region range from damp rain forests to vast grasslands to hot deserts. Africa south of the Sahara has four main climate regions: tropical wet, tropical dry, steppe, and desert. Rain forests are found along the Equator in Central and West Africa. Small areas on the coast of Southern Africa and the highlands of East Africa have moderate climates. Similar climate zones appear north and south of the Equator in the region.

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Chapter 20: History and Cultures of Africa South of the Sahara

Chapter Overview

High developed societies have prospered in Africa south of the Sahara for thousands of years. In ancient Africa, the migrations of the Bantu people spread a common language and technology. Later, powerful kingdoms emerged. The wealthy Kush civilization developed in East and southern Africa around 800 B.C. During the A.D. 300s, the Kush were defeated by the Axum, a stronger civilization that prospered from trade. The West Africa trading empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai emerged from the A.D. 800s to the A.D. 1500s.

Beginning in the 1400s, Africans saw greater trading with Europeans. Their arrival changed the region dramatically. Europeans increased the slave trade and sent nearly 12 million Africans to the Americas, destroying homes, families, and entire communities. before their countries eventually achieved independence. Even when the trade ended in the 1800s, Europeans did not leave Africa. Rather, countries claimed different colonies in Africa to exploit Africa’s raw materials. It wasn’t until the last half of the 1900s that Africans achieved independence from European rule. This freedom, however, brought many challenges. Civil wars plagued many countries because of ethnic differences. South Africa also had a system of apartheid that separated ethnic groups and limited the rights of black South Africans. In the 1990s, this system was finally changed.

Africa south of the Sahara has a rapidly growing population, which has brought many challenges to the region. In urban areas, there is pollution, overcrowding, and poor sanitation. In rural areas, many people lack clean water, food, and good sanitation. Disease is also rampant, so health care is a big concern. AIDS has had an especially destructive impact on the region. Most of the population lives in rural villages and works in agriculture. People in rural areas tend to live in extended families. People in the cities work in businesses or factories, and nuclear families are more common.

Africans belong to many different ethnic groups, speak thousands of different languages, and practice a variety of religions. The most widely spoken language is Swahili. European languages are also spoken in the region, and in some countries Arabic is an official language. Most people in Africa are Christian or Muslim, but hundreds of traditional religions are also practiced. The cultural traditions in music, art, and dance of Africa have also influenced cultures around the world.

Exploring Our World: People, Places, and Cultures

Chapter 21: Africa South of the Sahara Today

Chapter Overview

The economies of Africa south of the Sahara depend more on agriculture and mineral resources than on manufacturing. Today, a number of challenges face the people of this region, including environmental damage, the spread of disease, and various ethnic conflicts.

Nigeria, the largest country in West Africa, is a major producer of oil. Despite this resource, however, its people work mainly as farmers. Ethnic and now religious conflict has plagued the country. Other countries in West Africa are inland countries like Mali and Chad, which lie on the partly dry grasslands called the Sahel, and coastal and island areas like the Cape Verde islands and the countries of Liberia, Ghana, and Senegal. Populations are smaller in the inland areas, and the lack of good transportation limits development. Civil wars have destroyed the economies of some coastal countries.

In Central and East Africa, ethnic conflicts have hurt people and the environment. Central Africa remains largely undeveloped because of the environment and political conflicts. The large rain forest in the region is rapidly being destroyed as it is cleared for timber and farmland. Some countries in Central Africa are moving toward economic growth. East Africa countries on the coast, like Tanzania and Kenya, have stable governments and economies, while highland countries like Uganda and Rwanda have faced rampant unrest. The northern part of East Africa, in the countries of Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia, endure ethnic conflict and war, which hurts their economies.

Southern Africa’s economies rely on the export of valuable minerals such as gold and diamonds. The country of South Africa has experience major social and political change in recent years and is now a growing democracy and a developed economy. Other Southern African countries are rich in resources but struggle to have basics such as food and water. They are home to many different ethnic groups, and people there are primarily farmers or they travel as migrant workers to more-prosperous South Africa.